Red Hat Linux Networking and System Administration 3rd Edition Book

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Part One System and Network Administration Defined33

Chapter 1 Duties of the System Administrator35

The Linux System Administrator35

Installing and Configuring Servers37

Installing and Configuring Application Software38

Creating and Maintaining User Accounts39

Backing Up and Restoring Files39

Monitoring and Tuning Performance41

Configuring a Secure System42

Using Tools to Monitor Security44


Chapter 2 Planning the Network45

Deciding How Your Network Will Be Used45

Understanding Topologies47

Star Topology47

Bus Topology48

Ring Topology48

Tree Topology49

Client-Server or Peer-to-Peer?50

What’s in the Mix?51

Determining System Requirements52

Planning and Implementing Security53

Addressing External and Internal Threats53

Formulating a Security Policy54

An Effective Password Policy54

General Security Rules54

Security Updates55

An Appropriate Firewall System55

Planning for Recovery from Disasters55

Clustering Solutions56

Disaster Recovery57

Writing It Down: Good Records Can Save Your Job58


Chapter 3 Standard Installation61

Exploring Your PC’s Components62




Video Card and Monitor63

Hard Drive64

Floppy Disk Drive64

Keyboard and Mouse65

SCSI Controller65

CD/DVD-R/RW Drive65

Sound Card65

Network Card66

Checking for Supported Hardware66

Creating the Red Hat Boot Disk67

Starting the Installation68

Partitioning the Hard Disk74

Using Disk Druid to Partition Your Disks77

Naming Disks and Devices77

Mounting a File System78

Understanding the Swap Partition79

Preparing Disk Partitions79

Setting Up the Partitions81

Configuring the Installation83

Installing the Boot Loader83

Configuring the Network86

Configuring the Firewall88

Choosing Additional Languages90

Setting the Time Zone91

Setting the Root Password93

Selecting the Package Groups to Install94

Running Firstboot97


Chapter 4 Kickstart Installation103

Using the Kickstart Configurator103

Installing the Kickstart Configurator104

Boot Loader Options Screen109

Partition Information Screen110

Network Configuration115


Firewall Configuration118

Display Configuration119

Package Selection122

Pre-Installation Script123

Post-Installation Script124

Starting the Kickstart Installation125

Creating a Bootable Floppy125

Creating a Bootable CD-ROM126

Starting a Kickstart Installation127


Chapter 5 Exploring the Desktops129

Examining the Graphical Login Screen129

Logging In and Using the GNOME Desktop131

Playing with the Panel133

Managing Applets on the Panel134

Choosing Items from the Applications Menu in Fedora Core135

Choosing Items from the Places Menu in Fedora Core137

Choosing Items from the Desktop Menu in Fedora Core138

on Enterprise Linux139

Choosing Actions from the Actions Menu in Enterprise Linux141

Using the Nautilus File Manager142

Displaying Your Home Folder144

Displaying the Contents of a Folder144

Opening Files144

Accessing FTP Sites145

Using Bookmarks145

Adding a Bookmark145

Editing Bookmarks145

Deleting Bookmarks146

Managing Your Files and Folders146

Customizing the Nautilus File Manager147

Editing File Manager Preferences147

Changing the File Manager Background and Icon Emblems149

Showing and Hiding Views150

Configuring GNOME150

Logging Out151

Taking a Look at KDE151

Managing Applets153

Choosing Applications from the Applications Menu154

Using the Konqueror File Manager156

Logging Out of KDE158


Chapter 6 System Startup and Shutdown159

Examining the Boot Process160

The Boot Loader160

Using GRUB during Boot162

The Kernel164

The /sbin/init Program165

Exploring Runlevels168

Changing the System Runlevel168

Starting Programs at System Boot169

Shutting Down the System170

GRUB Configuration File171


Chapter 7 The File System Explained173

Understanding the File System Structure173

The / Directory175

Working with Linux-Supported File Systems176










Nonstandard Linux File Systems180



Memory and Virtual File Systems181






Proc Software Information182

Proc Hardware Information184




Linux Disk Management187

Disk Partitioning on an x86 Machine187

Mounting Other OS Partitions/Slices187


Logical Volumes188



Chapter 8 Examining the System Configuration Files195

Examining the System Configuration Files196

Systemwide Shell Configuration Scripts196

Shell Config Scripts: bashrc, csh.cshrc, zshrc197

bash, tcsh, zsh, and Their Config File Read Orders199

System Environmental Settings200







cron files203



Examining the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory207






























Directories in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory219






Examining the Network Configuration Files220

or Moving the System220

Setting Up the IP Address221

Setting Up the Hostname222

Setting Up the DNS Name Resolution222

Making a Local File of Hostname to IP Address Mappings223

Setting Up Name Service Resolution Order224

Starting Up Network Services from xinetd225

Starting Up Network Services from the rc Scripts226

in the /etc/sysconfig Directory227





ifup and ifdown228

Managing the init Scripts228

Managing rc Scripts by Hand230

Managing rc Scripts Using chkconfig232


Part Two Network Services235

Chapter 9 Managing the X Window System237

Configuring the X Server with the X Configuration Tool237

Changing the Display Resolution238

Changing the Display Color Depth239

Changing Monitor Type Settings239

Changing Your Video Card Type240

Configuring Dual Monitors241

Manually Configuring Your X Server242

The X Server Configuration File242


Chapter 10 Configuring Printers249

Configuring Printers with the Printer Configuration Tool249

Configuring the Print Queue251

Selecting the Print Driver256

Editing the Printer Configuration257

Deleting a Printer259

Setting the Default Printer259

Managing Print Jobs259


Chapter 11 TCP/IP Networking261

TCP/IP Explained261

Understanding Network Classes263

Setting Up a Network Interface Card (NIC)265

Configuring the Network Card266

Configuring an Internal Network267

Understanding Subnetting270

Interpreting IP Numbers272

Before You Subnet Your Network273

Classless InterDomain Routing276

Working with Gateways and Routers278

Configuring Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol279

Setting Up the Server280

Configuring the DHCP Client282

Configuration Tool282

Adding an Ethernet Device283

Adding a Wireless NIC286

Adding a Modem Connection288

Editing Your Network Configuration291

Removing a NIC291

Changing the NIC Configuration292

Managing DNS Settings293

Managing Hosts293

Working with Profiles294

Configuring IP Masquerading295


Chapter 12 The Network File System297

NFS Overview297

Understanding NFS298

What’s New with NFSv4?300

NFS Advantages and Disadvantages301

Planning an NFS Installation303

Configuring an NFS Server305

NFS Server Configuration and Status Files306

NFS Server Daemons315

NFS Server Scripts and Commands317

Using Secure NFS322

Example NFS Server322

Using the NFS Server Configuration Tool324

Configuring an NFS Client328

Configuring an NFSv4 Client331

Example NFS Client332

Using Automount Services333

Examining NFS Security337

General NFS Security Issues337

Server Security Considerations338

Client Security Considerations339


Chapter 13 The Network Information System341

Understanding NIS341

Planning an NIS Installation343

Configuring an NIS Server347

Key Files and Commands347

Starting the NIS Password Daemon353

Starting the Server Transfer Daemon353

Starting the NIS Servers at Boot Time354

Configuring an Example NIS Server356

Configuring an NIS Client358

Setting the NIS Domain Name358

Configuring and Starting the Client Daemon358

Configuring the Client Startup Files363

NIS Client Commands363

Configuring an Example NIS Client365

Using NIS and NFS Together366


Chapter 14 Connecting to Microsoft and Novell Networks371

Installing Samba372

Configuring the Samba Server373




Creating Samba Users376

Starting the Samba Server377

Connecting to a Samba Client377

to the Samba Server379

Connecting to Novell Networks380


Chapter 15 Configuring a Database Server383

Linux Database Servers383

Using MySQL385

Securing the MySQL Installation387

Using the MySQL Client Programs391

Using PostgreSQL394

Verifying the PostgreSQL Installation397

Finalizing the PostgreSQL Installation398

Initializing the Installation398

Modifying Access Privileges400

Creating a Test Database404

Testing Connectivity to the Test Database406

Using the PostgreSQL Client Programs407


Chapter 16 Creating a VNC Server413

What Is VNC?413

Setting Up a VNC Server415

Configuring Your Firewall for VNC416

Customizing the VNC Server418

Testing the VNC420


Chapter 17 Providing Additional Network Services425

Configuring a Time Server426

Selecting a Time Server Solution427

Configuring the Time Server428

Selecting Reference Clocks429

Configuring an NTP Client433

Playing Nicely and Wisely with NTP437

Providing a Caching Proxy Server438

Verifying the Kernel Configuration440

Configuring Squid441

Modifying Netfilter443

Starting Squid444

Testing the Configuration444


Chapter 18 Optimizing Network Services447

Optimizing the X Window System448

Optimizing NFS450

Optimizing NIS455

Optimizing Samba Networking455

Getting More from a Database Server456


Part Three Internet Services459

Chapter 19 What Are Internet Services?461

Learning about Secure Services462




Less Secure Services466







talk and ntalk467

Using Your Linux Machine as a Server468





Configuring the xinetd Server469

Comparing xinetd and Standalone471

xinetd-Started Services471

Standalone Services472

Configuring Linux Firewall Packages473


Chapter 20 Configuring BIND: The Domain Name System475

Understanding DNS475

Installing the Software478

Understanding Types of Domain Servers479

Examining Server Configuration Files481

The named.conf file482







Zone Files490

SOA — Start of Authority491

The Reverse Zone File492

Configuring a Caching DNS Server493

Configuring a Secondary Master DNS Server494

Configuring a Primary Master Server494

Checking Your Configuration496

The Host Program496

The dig Program497


Chapter 21 Configuring Mail Services499

Email Explained499

Tracing the Email Delivery Process500

Mail User Agent (MUA)500

Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)501

Mail Delivery Agent (MDA)501

Introducing SMTP502

Understanding POP3503

Understanding IMAP4503

Configuring Sendmail504

Configuring Sendmail506

The m4 Macro Processor507

Understanding and Managing the Mail Queue508

Setting Up Aliases to Make Life Easier508

Using Other Sendmail Files and Commands510

Using the Postfix Mail Server511

Switching to Postfix511

Configuring Postfix512

Running Postfix behind a Firewall or Gateway514

Running Postfix on a Mail Host515

Serving Email with POP3 and IMAP516

Setting up an IMAP Server517

Configuring Dovecot517

Testing Cyrus518

Maintaining Email Security518

Protecting against Eavesdropping519

Using Encryption519

Using a Firewall519

Don’t Get Bombed, Spammed, or Spoofed520

Be Careful with SMTP520


Chapter 22 Configuring FTP Services523

Introducing vsftpd524

Configuring vsftpd525

Configuring User Level FTP Access528

Configuring vsftpd Features529

Disabling Anonymous FTP533

Advanced FTP Server Configuration534

Running vsftpd from xinetd534

Enabling Anonymous Uploads535

Enabling Guest User FTP Accounts536

Running vsftpd over SSL539

Using SFTP541


Chapter 23 Configuring a Web Server543

Introducing Apache543

Apache Features544

Changes in Apache 2548

How Web Servers Work549

Configuring Apache551

Apache’s Startup Process552

Configuring Global Behavior553

Configuring the Default Server556

Configuring Virtual Servers569

Starting and Stopping Apache571

Implementing SSI572

Enabling CGI575

Enabling PHP577

Creating a Secure Server with SSL578

Understanding SSL and Server Certificates579

Creating a Self-Signed Certificate581

Obtaining a Certificate from a Certification Authority586


Chapter 24 Providing Web Services587

Creating Mailing Lists587

Completing the Initial Mailman Configuration588

Creating a Mailing List591

Modifying a Mailing List’s Configuration592

Performing Common Mailman Administrative Tasks593

Adding Multiple List Members594

Hiding a Mailing List594

Restricting Archives Access595

Setting Up Web-Based Email595

Connecting to SquirrelMail595

Reconfiguring SquirrelMail597

Configuring an RSS Feed599

Selecting Content for an RSS Feed602

Creating the Feed File602

Turning on an RSS Feed604

Adding Search Functionality606

Getting Started with ht://Dig606


Chapter 25 Optimizing Internet Services613

Optimizing LDAP Services614

Optimizing DNS Services615

Improving the Performance of DNS Clients615

Tweaking DNS Servers617


Optimizing Mail Services619

Getting More from Sendmail619

Getting More from Postfix620

Optimizing FTP Services622

Optimizing Web Services622


Part Four System Administration627

Chapter 26 Keeping Your System Updated with up2d629

Using the Red Hat up2date Agent630

Configuring the up2date Agent631

Updating Your System634

Registering Your System637

Accessing the Red Hat Network with a Web Browser640


Chapter 27 Upgrading and Customizing the Kernel647

Determining Whether to Upgrade to a New Kernel648

Upgrading versus Customizing650

Preparing to Upgrade650

Installing a Kernel RPM651

Getting the Kernel Source652

Using the Kernel Source RPM653

Using Pristine Kernel Source655

Verifying and Unpacking the Archive658

Patching the Kernel659

Configuring the Kernel661

Selecting a Kernel Configuration File662

Configuring the Kernel with xconfig665

Configuring the Kernel with menuconfig666

Reviewing the Configuration Options669

Code Maturity Level Options669

General Setup669

Loadable Module Support672

Processor Type and Features672

Power Management Options675

Bus Options675

Executable File Formats676

Device Drivers677

Generic Driver Options677

Memory Technology Devices677

Parallel Port Support677

Plug and Play Support678

Block Devices678


SCSI Device Support680

Old CD-ROM Drivers680

Multidevice Support681

Fusion MPT Device Support681

IEEE 1394/FireWire Support681

I2O Device Support681

Networking Support681

Input Device Support685

Character Devices686

I2C Support686

Multimedia Devices687

Graphics Support687


USB Support688

MMC/SD Card Support692

InfiniBand Support692

File Systems692

CD-ROM/DVD File Systems693

DOS/FAT/NT File Systems693


Miscellaneous File Systems694

Network File Systems694

Partition Types694

Native Language Support695

Profiling Support695

Kernel Hacking696

Security Options696

Cryptography Options696

Library Routines697

Saving the Kernel Configuration697

Compiling the Kernel698

Installing the Kernel701

Updating GRUB702


Chapter 28 Configuring the System at the Command Line705

Administrating Your System from the Command Line705

Managing Processes707

Obtaining Process Information708

Signaling Processes712

Modifying Process Priorities714

Maintaining the File System715

Working with File Systems715

Creating and Manipulating Partitions715

Creating and Manipulating File Systems717

Working with Files and Directories723

Managing Disk Space Usage727


Single-Use Commands729

Using the Network Time Protocol734

Automating Scripts734

Running One-Shot Jobs with at734

Running Regularly Scheduled Jobs with cron736


Chapter 29 Administering Users and Groups739

Administering User Accounts739

Working with User Accounts740

The User Database Files740

Modifying Multiple Accounts Simultaneously747

Viewing Login and Process Information749

Working with Group Accounts750

Creating Groups751

Modifying and Deleting Groups752

Using a Shadowed Group File754

Using User Private Groups755

Administering Users and Groups with User Manager757

Creating User Accounts758

Modifying and Deleting User Accounts759

Creating Group Accounts760

Modifying and Deleting Group Accounts761

Understanding the Root Account762

Implementing Sudo763

Deciphering Sudo’s Configuration File765

Sudo Configuration and Usage Tips769

Using File System Quotas769

Enabling Quotas770

Creating the Quota Files771

Turning on Quotas772

Setting and Modifying Quotas772

Viewing Quota Utilization774


Chapter 30 Installing and Upgrading Software Packages777

Using the Red Hat Package Manager777

General Options778

Query Mode780

Querying Package Dependencies782

What’s in That RPM?783

Formatting Query Output786

Package Installation and Removal787

Installing RPMs788

Upgrading RPMs789

Removing RPMs790

Verifying RPMs790

Building Packages Using Source RPMs793

Checking Software Versions796

Obtaining Newer Software799

Using Third-Party Sites to Find RPMs800

Using Ibiblio.org802

Installing Software from Source803

Configuring the Build Environment804

Unpacking the Source Code804

Configuring the Source Code805

Building the Software Package807

Testing the Build808

Installing the Software809


Chapter 31 Backing Up and Restoring the File System811

Creating a Backup Plan811

Choosing Media for Backups813

Understanding Backup Methods813

Tape Rotation815

Using Backup Tools816

Command Line Tools816

Using mt-st816

Using the cdrecord Package819

Using dump821

Using restore822

Using tar825

Advanced Tools827

Using AMANDA827


Chapter 32 Performance Monitoring837

System-Performance-Monitoring Tools837

Measuring Memory Usage838

Memory Usage as Seen by Users and Processes838

Examining Kernel Memory Usage842

Viewing Running Tasks844

Getting Started with ps845

Using top849

Monitoring I/O Activity854

Using sar858

Monitoring Memory with sar859

Monitoring CPU Usage with sar861


Part Five System Security and Problem Solving865

Chapter 33 Exploring SELinux Security867

Understanding SELinux867

Mandatory and Role-Based Access Control868

SELinux Policies870

Using SELinux870

Enabling SELinux Manually874

Modifying the Targeted Policy875

Finding More Information about SELinux877


Chapter 34 Implementing Network Security879

Creating a Firewall879

Installing, Configuring, and Using LDAP883

Overview of LDAP Directory Organization884

OpenLDAP Packages for Linux887

Core OpenLDAP Server Files, Daemons, and Utilities888

Configuring and Starting an OpenLDAP Server889

Using OpenLDAP for System Authentication892

Entries to an LDAP Server892

Updating Client Systems to Use LDAP Authentication893

Installing, Configuring, and Using Kerberos896

Kerberos Terminology, Machine Roles, and Reliability897

Kerberos Packages for Linux897

Core Kerberos Utilities898

Installing and Configuring a Kerberos Server899

Enabling Kerberos Clients and Applications902

Using Kerberos for Login Authentication903


Chapter 35 Troubleshooting and Problem Solving907

Troubleshooting Techniques908

Step 1: Identify the Problem908

Step 2: Reproduce the Problem908

Step 3: Look for Changes909

Step 4: Determine the Most Likely Cause909

Step 5: Implement a Solution910

Step 6: Keep Documentation910

Troubleshooting Resources910

The Internet910

System Log Files911

README Files914

Solving Common Problems915

Unable to Log In915

Resetting a User’s Password915

Creating a User Account915

Lost or Forgotten Root Password916

CD-ROM Drive Not Detected during Installation916

CD-ROM Drive Does Not Mount after Installation917

Sound Does Not Work after Installation917

Unable to Unmount a Drive919

Shell Commands Don’t Work920

Solving File System Problems920

Cannot Delete a File921

Commands with Multiword Arguments921

Accessing Windows File Systems922

Working with Floppy Disks922

Cannot Mount a Partition923

Avoiding File System Checks at Each System Reboot923

Solving Networking Problems923

Getting Online with a Modem925

The Boot Process Hangs927

Using Two Ethernet Cards928

Solving NFS Problems928

Exploring Miscellaneous Problems930

Solving Boot Problems931

ht://Dig Won’t Run932

Starting cyrus-imapd932

Solving Laptop Video Problems933

The Signal 7 and Signal 11 Problems934

Using Screensavers and Power Management935

Starting the X Window System935

Making an Emergency Boot Disk936


Appendix A Bash Shell Scripting937

Using Wildcards and Special Characters938

Using Variables941

Using Bash Operators945

Comparison Operators945

Arithmetic Operators948

File Test Operators949

Understanding Flow Control951

Conditional Execution Using if Statements952

Determinate Loops Using the for Statement954

Indeterminate Loops Using while and until Statements955

Selection Structures Using case and select Statements956

The case Statement957

The select Statement958

Using Shell Functions960

Processing Input and Output961

Redirecting I/O961

String I/O964

Working with Command Line Arguments966

Using Processes and Job Control968