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Table Of Contents 8

Chapter 1 Introduction And Overview36

1.1 The Motivation For Internetworking36

1.2 The TCP/IP Internet37

1.3 Internet Services37

1.4 History And Scope Of The Internet41

1.5 The Internet Architecture Board42

1.6 The IAB Reorganization43

1.7 Internet Request For Comments (RFCs)43

1.8 Internet Growth44

1.9 Transition To IPv6 47

1.10 Committee Design And The New Version of IP 47

1.11 Relationship Between IPv4 And IPv6 48

1.12 IPv6 Migration 49

1.13 Dual Stack Systems 50

1.14 Organization Of The Text 50

Chapter 2 Overview Of Underlying Network Technolog54

2.1 Introduction 54

2.2 Two Approaches To Network Communication 55

2.3 WAN And LAN 56

2.4 Hardware Addressing Schemes 56

2.5 Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 57

2.6 Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) 61

2.7 ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) 61

2.8 Optical Carrier And Packet Over SONET (OC, POS) 62

2.9 Point-To-Point Networks 63

2.10 VLAN Technology And Broadcast Domains 63

2.11 Bridging 64

2.12 Congestion And Packet Loss 65

2.13 Summary 66

Chapter 3 Internetworking Concept And Architectural Mo70

3.1 Introduction 70

3.2 Application-Level Interconnection 70

3.3 Network-Level Interconnection 72

3.4 Properties Of The Internet 73

3.5 Internet Architecture 74

3.6 Interconnection Of Multiple Networks With IP Routers 74

3.7 The User’s View 76

3.8 All Networks Are Equal 77

3.9 The Unanswered Questions 78

Chapter 4 Protocol Layer82

4.1 Introduction 82

4.2 The Need For Multiple Protocols 82

4.3 The Conceptual Layers Of Protocol Software 84

4.4 Functionality Of The Layers 84

4.5 ISO 7-Layer Reference Model 85

4.6 X.25 And Its Relation To The ISO Model 86

4.7 The TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model 87

4.8 Locus Of Intelligence 91

4.9 The Protocol Layering Principle 92

4.10 The Layering Principle Applied To A Network 93

4.11 Layering In Mesh Networks 95

4.12 Two Important Boundaries In The TCP/IP Model 97

4.13 Cross-Layer Optimizations 98

4.14 The Basic Idea Behind Multiplexing And Demultiplexing 99

4.15 Summary 101

Chapter 5 Internet Address104

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Universal Host Identifiers 104

5.3 The Original IPv4 Classful Addressing Scheme 106

5.4 Dotted Decimal Notation Used With IPv4 107

5.5 IPv4 Subnet Addressing 107

5.6 Fixed Length IPv4 Subnets 110

5.7 Variable-Length IPv4 Subnets 112

5.8 Implementation Of IPv4 Subnets With Masks 112

5.9 IPv4 Subnet Mask Representation And Slash Notation 113

5.10 The Current Classless IPv4 Addressing Scheme 114

5.11 IPv4 Address Blocks And CIDR Slash Notation 117

5.12 A Classless IPv4 Addressing Example 117

5.13 IPv4 CIDR Blocks Reserved For Private Networks 118

5.14 The IPv6 Addressing Scheme 119

5.15 IPv6 Colon Hexadecimal Notation 119

5.16 IPv6 Address Space Assignment 120

5.17 Embedding IPv4 Addresses In IPv6 For Transition 121

5.18 IPv6 Unicast Addresses And /64 122

5.19 IPv6 Interface Identifiers And MAC Addresses 123

5.20 IP Addresses, Hosts, And Network Connections 124

5.21 Special Addresses 125

5.22 Weaknesses In Internet Addressing 129

5.23 Internet Address Assignment And Delegation Of Authority 131

5.24 An Example IPv4 Address Assignment 131

5.25 Summary 133

Chapter 6 Mapping Internet Addresses To Physical Addresses (A136

6.1 Introduction 136

6.2 The Address Resolution Problem 136

6.3 Two Types Of Hardware Addresses 137

6.4 Resolution Through Direct Mapping 137

6.5 Resolution In A Direct-Mapped Network 138

6.6 IPv4 Address Resolution Through Dynamic Binding 139

6.7 The ARP Cache 140

6.8 ARP Cache Timeout 141

6.9 ARP Refinements 141

6.10 Relationship Of ARP To Other Protocols 143

6.11 ARP Implementation 143

6.12 ARP Encapsulation And Identification 145

6.13 ARP Message Format 145

6.14 Automatic ARP Cache Revalidation 147

6.15 Reverse Address Resolution (RARP) 147

6.16 ARP Caches In Layer 3 Switches 148

6.17 Proxy ARP 149

6.18 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 150

6.19 Summary 151

Chapter 7 Internet Protocol: Connectionless Datagram Delivery (IP154

7.1 Introduction 154

7.2 A Virtual Network 154

7.3 Internet Architecture And Philosophy 155

7.4 Principles Behind The Structure 155

7.5 Connectionless Delivery System Characteristics 156

7.6 Purpose And Importance Of The Internet Protocol 157

7.7 The IP Datagram 157

7.8 Datagram Type Of Service And Differentiated Services 162

7.9 Datagram Encapsulation 164

7.10 Datagram Size, Network MTU, and Fragmentation 165

7.11 Datagram Reassembly 169

7.12 Header Fields Used For Datagram Reassembly 170

7.13 Time To Live (IPv4) And Hop Limit (IPv6) 171

7.14 Optional IP Items 172

7.15 Options Processing During Fragmentation 176

7.16 Network Byte Order 178

7.17 Summary 179

Chapter 8 Internet Protocol: Forwarding IP Datagr182

8.1 Introduction 182

8.2 Forwarding In An Internet 182

8.3 Direct And Indirect Delivery 184

8.4 Transmission Across A Single Network 185

8.5 Indirect Delivery 186

8.6 Table-Driven IP Forwarding 187

8.7 Next-Hop Forwarding 188

8.8 Default Routes And A Host Example 190

8.9 Host-Specific Routes 191

8.10 The IP Forwarding Algorithm 192

8.11 Longest-Prefix Match Paradigm 193

8.12 Forwarding Tables And IP Addresses 195

8.13 Handling Incoming Datagrams 196

8.14 Forwarding In The Presence Of Broadcast And Multicast 197

8.15 Software Routers And Sequential Lookup 198

8.16 Establishing Forwarding Tables 198

8.17 Summary 198

Chapter 9 Internet Protocol: Error And Control Messages (IC202

9.1 Introduction 202

9.2 The Internet Control Message Protocol 202

9.3 Error Reporting Vs. Error Correction 204

9.4 ICMP Message Delivery 205

9.5 Conceptual Layering 206

9.6 ICMP Message Format 206

9.7 Example ICMP Message Types Used With IPv4 And IPv6 207

9.8 Testing Destination Reachability And Status (Ping) 208

9.9 Echo Request And Reply Message Format 209

9.10 Checksum Computation And The IPv6 Pseudo-Header 210

9.11 Reports Of Unreachable Destinations 211

9.12 ICMP Error Reports Regarding Fragmentation 213

9.13 Route Change Requests From Routers 213

9.14 Detecting Circular Or Excessively Long Routes 215

9.15 Reporting Other Problems 216

9.16 Older ICMP Messages Used At Startup 217

9.17 Summary 217

Chapter 10 User Datagram Protocol (U220

10.1 Introduction 220

10.2 Using A Protocol Port As An Ultimate Destination 220

10.3 The User Datagram Protocol 221

10.4 UDP Message Format 222

10.5 Interpretation Of the UDP Checksum 223

10.6 UDP Checksum Computation And The Pseudo-Header 224

10.7 IPv4 UDP Pseudo-Header Format 224

10.8 IPv6 UDP Pseudo-Header Format 225

10.9 UDP Encapsulation And Protocol Layering 225

10.10 Layering And The UDP Checksum Computation 227

10.11 UDP Multiplexing, Demultiplexing, And Protocol Ports 228

10.12 Reserved And Available UDP Port Numbers 229

10.13 Summary 231

Chapter 11 Reliable Stream Transport Service (T234

11.1 Introduction 234

11.2 The Need For Reliable Service 234

11.3 Properties Of The Reliable Delivery Service 235

11.4 Reliability: Acknowledgements And Retransmission 236

11.5 The Sliding Window Paradigm 238

11.6 The Transmission Control Protocol 240

11.7 Layering, Ports, Connections, And Endpoints 241

11.8 Passive And Active Opens 243

11.9 Segments, Streams, And Sequence Numbers 243

11.10 Variable Window Size And Flow Control 244

11.11 TCP Segment Format 245

11.12 Out Of Band Data 247

11.13 TCP Options 247

11.14 TCP Checksum Computation 249

11.15 Acknowledgements, Retransmission, And Timeouts 251

11.16 Accurate Measurement Of Round Trip Samples 253

11.17 Karn’s Algorithm And Timer Backoff 254

11.18 Responding To High Variance In Delay 255

11.19 Response To Congestion 258

11.20 Fast Recovery And Other Response Modifications 260

11.21 Explicit Feedback Mechanisms (SACK and ECN) 262

11.22 Congestion, Tail Drop, And TCP 263

11.23 Random Early Detection (RED) 264

11.24 Establishing A TCP Connection 266

11.25 Initial Sequence Numbers 267

11.26 Closing a TCP Connection 268

11.27 TCP Connection Reset 269

11.28 TCP State Machine 270

11.29 Forcing Data Delivery 271

11.30 Reserved TCP Port Numbers 272

11.31 Silly Window Syndrome And Small Packets 273

11.32 Avoiding Silly Window Syndrome 274

11.33 Buffer Bloat And Its Effect On Latency 277

11.34 Summary 278

Chapter 12 Routing Architecture: Cores, Peers, And Algorit282

12.1 Introduction 282

12.2 The Origin Of Forwarding Tables 283

12.3 Forwarding With Partial Information 284

12.4 Original Internet Architecture And Cores 286

12.5 Beyond The Core Architecture To Peer Backbones 288

12.6 Automatic Route Propagation And A FIB 289

12.7 Distance-Vector (Bellman-Ford) Routing 290

12.8 Reliability And Routing Protocols 292

12.9 Link-State (SPF) Routing 293

12.10 Summary 294

Chapter 13 Routing Among Autonomous Systems (B298

13.1 Introduction 298

13.2 The Scope Of A Routing Update Protocol 298

13.3 Determining A Practical Limit On Group Size 299

13.4 A Fundamental Idea: Extra Hops 301

13.5 Autonomous System Concept 302

13.6 Exterior Gateway Protocols And Reachability 303

13.7 BGP Characteristics 304

13.8 BGP Functionality And Message Types 305

13.9 BGP Message Header 306

13.10 BGP OPEN Message 307

13.11 BGP UPDATE Message 308

13.12 Compressed IPv4 Mask-Address Pairs 309

13.13 BGP Path Attributes 309

13.14 BGP KEEPALIVE Message 311

13.15 Information From The Receiver’s Perspective 312

13.16 The Key Restriction Of Exterior Gateway Protocols 313

13.17 The Internet Routing Architecture And Registries 315

13.18 BGP NOTIFICATION Message 315

13.19 BGP Multiprotocol Extensions For IPv6 316

13.20 Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI Attribute 318

13.21 Internet Routing And Economics 319

13.22 Summary 320

Chapter 14 Routing Within An Autonomous System (RIP, RIP324

14.1 Introduction 324

14.2 Static Vs. Dynamic Interior Routes 324

14.3 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 328

14.4 Slow Convergence Problem 329

14.5 Solving The Slow Convergence Problem 331

14.6 RIP Message Format (IPv4) 332

14.7 Fields In A RIP Message 334

14.8 RIP For IPv6 (RIPng) 334

14.9 The Disadvantage Of Using Hop Counts 336

14.10 Delay Metric (HELLO) 336

14.11 Delay Metrics, Oscillation, And Route Flapping 337

14.12 The Open SPF Protocol (OSPF) 338

14.13 OSPFv2 Message Formats (IPv4) 340

14.14 Changes In OSPFv3 To Support IPv6 345

14.15 IS-IS Route Propagation Protocol 347

14.16 Trust And Route Hijacking 348

14.17 Gated: A Routing Gateway Daemon 348

14.18 Artificial Metrics And Metric Transformation 349

14.19 Routing With Partial Information 350

14.20 Summary 350

Chapter 15 Internet Multicast354

15.1 Introduction 354

15.2 Hardware Broadcast 354

15.3 Hardware Multicast 355

15.4 Ethernet Multicast 356

15.5 The Conceptual Building Blocks Of Internet Multicast 356

15.6 The IP Multicast Scheme 357

15.7 IPv4 And IPv6 Multicast Addresses 358

15.8 Multicast Address Semantics 361

15.9 Mapping IP Multicast To Ethernet Multicast 362

15.10 Hosts And Multicast Delivery 363

15.11 Multicast Scope 363

15.12 Host Participation In IP Multicasting 364

15.13 IPv4 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 365

15.14 IGMP Details 366

15.15 IGMP Group Membership State Transitions 367

15.16 IGMP Membership Query Message Format 368

15.17 IGMP Membership Report Message Format 369

15.18 IPv6 Multicast Group Membership With MLDv2 370

15.19 Multicast Forwarding And Routing Information 372

15.20 Basic Multicast Forwarding Paradigms 374

15.21 Consequences Of TRPF 376

15.22 Multicast Trees 377

15.23 The Essence Of Multicast Route Propagation 378

15.24 Reverse Path Multicasting 379

15.25 Example Multicast Routing Protocols 380

15.26 Reliable Multicast And ACK Implosions 382

15.27 Summary 384

Chapter 16 Label Switching, Flows, And M388

16.1 Introduction 388

16.2 Switching Technology 388

16.3 Flows And Flow Setup 390

16.4 Large Networks, Label Swapping, And Paths 390

16.5 Using Switching With IP 392

16.6 IP Switching Technologies And MPLS 392

16.7 Labels And Label Assignment 394

16.8 Hierarchical Use Of MPLS And A Label Stack 394

16.9 MPLS Encapsulation 395

16.10 Label Semantics 396

16.11 Label Switching Router 397

16.12 Control Processing And Label Distribution 398

16.13 MPLS And Fragmentation 399

16.14 Mesh Topology And Traffic Engineering 399

16.15 Summary 400

Chapter 17 Packet Classificat404

17.1 Introduction 404

17.2 Motivation For Classification 405

17.3 Classification Instead Of Demultiplexing 406

17.4 Layering When Classification Is Used 407

17.5 Classification Hardware And Network Switches 407

17.6 Switching Decisions And VLAN Tags 409

17.7 Classification Hardware 410

17.8 High-Speed Classification And TCAM 410

17.9 The Size Of A TCAM 412

17.10 Classification-Enabled Generalized Forwarding 413

17.11 Summary 414

Chapter 18 Mobility And Mobile416

18.1 Introduction 416

18.2 Mobility, Addressing, And Routing 416

18.3 Mobility Via Host Address Change 417

18.4 Mobility Via Changes In Datagram Forwarding 418

18.5 The Mobile IP Technology 418

18.6 Overview Of Mobile IP Operation 419

18.7 Overhead And Frequency Of Change 419

18.8 Mobile IPv4 Addressing 420

18.9 IPv4 Foreign Agent Discovery 421

18.10 IPv4 Registration 422

18.11 IPv4 Registration Message Format 423

18.12 Communication With An IPv4 Foreign Agent 423

18.13 IPv6 Mobility Support 424

18.14 Datagram Transmission, Reception, And Tunneling 425

18.15 Assessment Of IP Mobility And Unsolved Problems 426

18.16 Alternative Identifier-Locator Separation Technologies 430

Chapter 19 Network Virtualization: VPNs, NATs, And Overl434

19.1 Introduction 434

19.2 Virtualization 434

19.3 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 435

19.4 VPN Tunneling And IP-in-IP Encapsulation 436

19.5 VPN Addressing And Forwarding 437

19.6 Extending VPN Technology To Individual Hosts 439

19.7 Using A VPN With Private IP Addresses 439

19.8 Network Address Translation (NAT) 440

19.9 NAT Translation Table Creation 442

19.10 Variant Of NAT 444

19.11 An Example Of NAT Translation 444

19.12 Interaction Between NAT And ICMP 446

19.13 Interaction Between NAT And Applications 446

19.14 NAT In The Presence Of Fragmentation 447

19.15 Conceptual Address Domains 448

19.16 Linux, Windows, And Mac Versions Of NAT 448

19.17 Overlay Networks 448

19.18 Multiple Simultaneous Overlays 450

19.19 Summary 450

Chapter 20 Client-Server Model Of Interact454

20.1 Introduction 454

20.2 The Client-Server Model 455

20.3 A Trivial Example: UDP Echo Server 455

20.4 Time And Date Service 457

20.5 Sequential And Concurrent Servers 458

20.6 Server Complexity 460

20.7 Broadcasting Requests 461

20.8 Client-Server Alternatives And Extensions 461

20.9 Summary 463

Chapter 21 The Socket 466

21.1 Introduction 466

21.2 Versions Of The Socket API 467

21.3 The UNIX I/O Paradigm And Network I/O 467

21.4 Adding Network I/O to UNIX 467

21.5 The Socket Abstraction And Socket Operations 468

21.6 Obtaining And Setting Socket Options 473

21.7 How A Server Accepts TCP Connections 474

21.8 Servers That Handle Multiple Services 475

21.9 Obtaining And Setting The Host Name 476

21.10 Library Functions Related To Sockets 477

21.11 Network Byte Order And Conversion Routines 478

21.12 IP Address Manipulation Routines 479

21.13 Accessing The Domain Name System 479

21.14 Obtaining Information About Hosts 481

21.15 Obtaining Information About Networks 482

21.16 Obtaining Information About Protocols 482

21.17 Obtaining Information About Network Services 482

21.18 An Example Client 483

21.19 An Example Server 488

21.20 Summary 495

Chapter 22 Bootstrap And Autoconfiguration (DHCP, NDP, IPv6-498

22.1 Introduction 498

22.2 History Of IPv4 Bootstrapping 499

22.3 Using IP To Determine An IP Address 499

22.4 DHCP Retransmission And Randomization 500

22.5 DHCP Message Format 500

22.6 The Need For Dynamic Configuration 503

22.7 DHCP Leases And Dynamic Address Assignment 504

22.8 Multiple Addresses And Relays 504

22.9 DHCP Address Acquisition States 505

22.10 Early Lease Termination 506

22.11 Lease Renewal States 507

22.12 DHCP Options And Message Type 508

22.13 DHCP Option Overload 509

22.14 DHCP And Domain Names 509

22.15 Managed And Unmanaged Configuration 509

22.16 Managed And Unmanaged Configuration For IPv6 510

22.17 IPv6 Configuration Options And Potential Conflicts 511

22.18 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) 512

22.19 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation Message 513

22.20 ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Message 513

22.21 ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message 514

22.22 ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement Message 515

22.23 ICMPv6 Redirect Message 515

22.24 Summary 516

Chapter 23 The Domain Name System (D520

23.1 Introduction 520

23.2 Names For Computers 521

23.3 Flat Namespace 521

23.4 Hierarchical Names 522

23.5 Delegation Of Authority For Names 523

23.6 Subset Authority 523

23.7 Internet Domain Names 524

23.8 Top-Level Domains 525

23.9 Name Syntax And Type 527

23.10 Mapping Domain Names To Addresses 528

23.11 Domain Name Resolution 530

23.12 Efficient Translation 531

23.13 Caching: The Key To Efficiency 532

23.14 Domain Name System Message Format 533

23.15 Compressed Name Format 536

23.16 Abbreviation Of Domain Names 536

23.17 Inverse Mappings 537

23.18 Pointer Queries 538

23.19 Object Types And Resource Record Contents 539

23.20 Obtaining Authority For A Subdomain 540

23.21 Server Operation And Replication 540

23.22 Dynamic DNS Update And Notification 541

23.23 DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) 541

23.24 Multicast DNS And Service Discovery 542

23.25 Summary 543

Chapter 24 Electronic Mail (SMTP, POP, IMAP, MI546

24.1 Introduction 546

24.2 Electronic Mail 546

24.3 Mailbox Names And Aliases 547

24.4 Alias Expansion And Mail Forwarding 548

24.5 TCP/IP Standards For Electronic Mail Service 549

24.6 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 550

24.7 Mail Retrieval And Mailbox Manipulation Protocols 552

24.8 The MIME Extensions For Non-ASCII Data 554

24.9 MIME Multipart Messages 556

24.10 Summary 557

Chapter 25 World Wide Web (HT560

25.1 Introduction 560

25.2 Importance Of The Web 560

25.3 Architectural Components 561

25.4 Uniform Resource Locators 561

25.5 An Example HTML Document 562

25.6 Hypertext Transfer Protocol 563

25.7 HTTP GET Request 563

25.8 Error Messages 564

25.9 Persistent Connections 565

25.10 Data Length And Program Output 565

25.11 Length Encoding And Headers 566

25.12 Negotiation 567

25.13 Conditional Requests 568

25.14 Proxy Servers And Caching 568

25.15 Caching 569

25.16 Other HTTP Functionality 570

25.17 HTTP, Security, And E-Commerce 570

25.18 Summary 571

Chapter 26 Voice And Video Over IP (RTP, RSVP, Q574

26.1 Introduction 574

26.2 Digitizing And Encoding 574

26.3 Audio And Video Transmission And Reproduction 575

26.4 Jitter And Playback Delay 576

26.5 Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) 577

26.6 Streams, Mixing, And Multicasting 579

26.7 RTP Encapsulation 579

26.8 RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) 580

26.9 RTCP Operation 580

26.10 IP Telephony And Signaling 581

26.11 Quality Of Service Controversy 584

26.12 QoS, Utilization, And Capacity 585

26.13 Emergency Services And Preemption 586

26.14 IntServ And Resource Reservation 586

26.15 DiffServ And Per-Hop Behavior 588

26.16 Traffic Scheduling 588

26.17 Traffic Policing And Shaping 590

26.18 Summary 591

Chapter 27 Network Management (SN594

27.1 Introduction 594

27.2 The Level Of Management Protocols 594

27.3 Architectural Model 596

27.4 Protocol Framework 597

27.5 Examples of MIB Variables 599

27.6 The Structure Of Management Information 599

27.7 Formal Definitions Using ASN.1 600

27.8 Structure And Representation Of MIB Object Names 601

27.9 MIB Changes And Additions For IPv6 606

27.10 Simple Network Management Protocol 606

27.11 SNMP Message Format 609

27.12 An Example Encoded SNMP Message 612

27.13 Security In SNMPv3 614

27.14 Summary 615

Chapter 28 Software Defined Networking (SDN, OpenFl618

28.1 Introduction 618

28.2 Routes, Paths, And Connections 618

28.3 Traffic Engineering And Control Of Path Selection 619

28.4 Connection-Oriented Networks And Routing Overlays 619

28.5 SDN: A New Hybrid Approach 621

28.6 Separation Of Data And Control 621

28.7 The SDN Architecture And External Controllers 623

28.8 SDN Across Multiple Devices 624

28.9 Implementing SDN With Conventional Switches 625

28.10 OpenFlow Technology 627

28.11 OpenFlow Basics 627

28.12 Specific Fields In An OpenFlow Pattern 628

28.13 Actions That OpenFlow Can Take 629

28.14 OpenFlow Extensions And Additions 630

28.15 OpenFlow Messages 633

28.16 Uses Of OpenFlow 634

28.17 OpenFlow: Excitement, Hype, And Limitations 634

28.18 Software Defined Radio (SDR) 635

Chapter 29 Internet Security And Firewall Design (IPsec, S640

29.1 Introduction 640

29.2 Protecting Resources 641

29.3 Information Policy 642

29.4 Internet Security 642

29.5 IP Security (IPsec) 643

29.6 IPsec Authentication Header 643

29.7 Security Association 645

29.8 IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload 646

29.9 Authentication And Mutable Header Fields 647

29.10 IPsec Tunneling 648

29.11 Required Security Algorithms 648

29.12 Secure Socket Layer (SSL and TLS) 649

29.13 Firewalls And Internet Access 649

29.14 Multiple Connections And Weakest Links 649

29.15 Firewall Implementation And Packet Filters 650

29.16 Firewall Rules And The 5-Tuple 650

29.17 Security And Packet Filter Specification 652

29.18 The Consequence Of Restricted Access For Clients 653

29.19 Stateful Firewalls 653

29.20 Content Protection And Proxies 654

29.21 Monitoring And Logging 655

Chapter 30 Connected Embedded Systems (The Internet of Thin658

30.1 Introduction 658

30.2 Sensing, Monitoring, And Control 659

30.3 Power Conservation And Energy Harvesting 659

30.4 A World Of Intelligent Embedded Devices 660

30.5 The Importance of Communication 660

30.6 Example: Electronic Ads In Shopping Malls 661

30.7 Collecting Data From Embedded Systems 662

30.8 Wireless Networking And IEEE 802.15.4 662

30.9 A Mesh Network For Smart Grid Sensors 663

30.10 A Forwarding Tree For a Sensor Mesh 664

30.11 Using Layer 2 And Layer 3 Protocols In A Mesh 665

30.12 The ZigBee IPv6 Protocol Stack 666

30.13 Forwarding In A ZigBee Route-Over Mesh 668

30.14 Assessment Of Using IPv6 Route-Over For A Mesh 670

Appendix 1 Glossary Of Internetworking Terms And Abbreviations 674

Index 716

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